The unthinking enthusiasm that characterized our entry into psychoanalysis with a mixture of embarrassment and wry amusement.
In his monograph of 1960, Rapaport had made “a systematizing attempt” to map out the conceptual terrain of psychoanalysis and the nature of the evidence on which those concepts were based.
developmental psychology must be understood as an epigenetic sequence organized in a hierarchical manner.
an internally consistent schema by being arranged in a developmental sequence.
Thus, the fully differentiated psyche consists of a hierarchy of five modes; functional regression is represented by downward movement from more mature to more primitive alternatives – progress by ascent in the opposite direction.
背景：20 世纪 50 年代，对于精神分析的乐观主义，先锋实验，以及怀疑、反抗（荣格等）并存。作者认为，所有结论过于简化、还原，而一切争论根本源于不同病人样本。Rapaport 的「系统化尝试」一定程度上是成功的，但过于抽象而脱离临床。作者逐渐意识到，不同流派可以经由发展序列排列统一成为内在一致的图式。（作者认为，自体心理学与统一理论是对立的；但在早期作品如 Models of the Mind 之中，他仍然受到科胡特的极大影响。）